Eleanor Marx: The last word

Eleanor Marx was 18, in 1873.

Last year it rained New york Paul McCartney published his essay about how he came to write “Eleanor Rigby.” The main focus is on an old woman he knew when he was a child and her name is not Eleanor; it could have been Daisy Hawkins but she didn’t do the project with Father MacKenzie (second verse), so he created “Eleanor” from Eleanor Bron, who worked on the Beatles’ Help film, and “Rigby” after a shop sign he saw in Bristol.

During the first cancer year, I wrote my own poem about an Eleanor: Eleanor “Tussy” Marx, who died today, March 31, 1898. I found myself reading the love and Mary Gabriel’s Capital: Karl and Jenny Marx and the Birth of a Revolution tells the epic story of Karl, his wife Jenny von Westphalen, and their daughters, Laura, Jenny (Jennychen), and Eleanor. There were others – Karl and Jenny had seven children but only three survived to adulthood. All three daughters – and their husbands – worked in the socialist economy, but Tussy was the closest to Marx and Engels and the most active political activist.

From Rachel Holmes’ autobiography, I learned that Eleanor Marx did the first English translation of Flaubert. Madame Bovary, and I think that’s the highest time I’ve read that. The book was scandalized for its depiction of sexuality and the newspaper that published it was tried for indecency in 1857. Riots were created in England, where it was blacklisted until in the 1950s, with government files showing that the police were under command. buy and destroy any copies they have.

The first part of Madame Bovary It’s slow – Flaubert probably wanted to show the kind of bourgeois boredom in the provinces – but the story takes a different turn when Emma begins her affairs with Rodolphe and Léon, and hard to put down. Here’s the spoiler: Emma Bovary, poor and suffering, kills herself by taking arsenic.

Eleanor Marx was born on January 16, 1855, and Julian Barnes says that Emma Bovary was “born” around 1855, although the serialized novel first appeared in the Revue de Paris in 1856.

Baby Tussy was vaccinated against smallpox, in accordance with an Act of the British Parliament of 1853, mandating the vaccination of babies. The Marxes, who lost two sons and a daughter to the disease in their childhood, are happy to follow the order, and it may have saved his life – his mother had the tuberculosis in the 1860s and was never fully cured.

Formal education was not an option for girls in 1860s England, but Eleanor attended South Hampstead College for Ladies and her teachers at home were top notch: Marx, Engels (in her visiting), and Engels’s friend Lizzy Burns, he could not. Read and write, but Eleanor was interested in the cause of Irish independence. From a young age, he accompanied his father to the reading room at the British Museum where, at the age of nine, he wrote letters to Abraham Lincoln, letters that his father falsified but shared with Engels. At fourteen he helped Marx and Engels in their research. He learned German and French and later Norwegian for the sole purpose of translating Ibsen.

Rachel Holmes argues that the women’s movement belongs to the 1870s, not the 1970s, and believes that Eleanor Marx was the head of socialist feminism. The right to vote in England over the right to property; Working class men could not vote, and women could not vote regardless of their social status. Eleanor supported the call for women’s suffrage, but she always focused on the question of women’s rights, that is, “the question of womanhood and its value,” that is, he worked as part of the working class. “Women are the victims of men’s violence,” he wrote, “while workers are the agents of the violence of the lazy.”

Eleanor was her father’s first journalist, writing an important essay for Progress in his life and the theory of surplus value. She organized the first women’s union sections and was a leader of the Gasworkers and General Laborers (today’s GMB, which honors her name every year).

Eleanor and Emma, ​​writes Julian Barnes, lead lives of immorality in the eyes of right-thinking people. For Emma Bovary, those sexual acts are sexual acts. For Eleanor Marx, it meant living for fifteen years in an open relationship, an exclusive association, with Edward Aveling, whom she met in 1884, in the reading room of the British Museum. Aveling was a member of the Secular Society, a Darwinist, a zoologist, an actor-playwright, a critic, a socialist, and by all accounts a cad and a loan shark and a bouncer of reviews.

“He had the eyes and face of a monster,” wrote his friend George Bernard Shaw, and many of his friends would have declined a dinner invitation if they thought Aveling was there. Therefore, the “free” in their private company is mostly for Edward, who spends his money and works while he works tirelessly for socialist business and jobs. work and take up teaching and translation to pay their bills.

In 1886 he completed his translation of Madame Bovaryand those of Lissagaray History of the City of Parisand keep the first reading of the Ibsen A Doll’s House in England, while writing together (with Aveling) The Woman Question: From a Socialist Point of View, about the oppression of women and the impact of men and women. Holmes described it as a synthesis of Marx, Engels, Wollstonecraft, and Mary Shelley.

That year Marx-Avelings toured the United States, at the invitation of the Socialist Labor Party. He despised anarchists and their activities, but he regularly made speeches in defense of those Chicago anarchists who were arrested and sentenced to death after the Haymarket Square Incident in May. . He and Aveling wrote a treatise on the Socialist movement in America. He was in Trafalgar Square on Bloody Sunday, November 13, 1887, walking in front of the crowd when the police started beating people.

In 1895 Eleanor bought a small house at 7 Jews Walk in the London suburb of Sydenham, where she lived with Edward, and continued to edit the essays of Marx and Engels for publication. Aveling spent a lot of time in London and maintained a secret life, borrowing money with demand. He was heavily indebted to GB Shaw, however, and continued to lend him money because Shaw was developing a game. The Doctor’s Problem, with a degenerate leadership style about Aveling, and says he wants to look at his style.

On June 8, 1897, Aveling secretly married a young woman named Eva Frye, using a false name on the marriage certificate. He left Eleanor without explanation, but at the end of the year, he became very ill (an ulcer and a new infection) and returned to the Sydenham house with without saying where he went.

Aveling was married before and he always told his first wife – Isabel Campbell Frank – not to give him a divorce, and therefore he could not marry Eleanor. Indeed, Isabel died in 1892; Aveling took his inheritance and sold the wealth he had hidden.

By early 1898, things had fallen apart, she was under financial pressure with Aveling’s huge medical bills, and friends were urging her to leave him. But he continued to apologize, guiltily.

“Dear Freddy,” he wrote to family friend Frederick Demuth, “I know very well that crime is only a moral disease, and that health is . . It is not appropriate to treat the condition of the sick, as a healthy person cannot see the nature of the disease.” Most historians believe that Demuth’s brother, the sonless son of Karl Marx and Helene Demuth.

In the last week of March, an anonymous letter announced that Aveling was married to Eva Frye. On the morning of March 31, they fought loudly, and Edward took the train to London. Eleanor sent her daughter Gertrude Gentry a prescription with a letter, signed “EA” and Aveling’s business card attached, asking for chloroform and “prussic acid (cyanide) for the dog.” Upon receiving the package, he took his own life in the same manner as Emma Bovary.

Gertrude found Eleanor dead in her bed, in her white muslin dress, her eyes and hands red. The doctor was named – Dr. Henry Shackleton, whose son Ernest later explored the Antarctic. The coroner’s report concluded, “killed life by consuming prussic water while acting under consciousness.” Her obituary at Sydenham was recorded: “Eleanor Marx, aged 40, single.” In fact, he was forty-three years old.

He left a short note for Aveling:

Oh dear, it’s going to end soon. My final message to you is what I have been saying all these long, sad years – love.

I decided to take that sad line and write a song around it. The line in the fourth bridge is better, but I had to cut that last word – love – to fit the song. I’m good at that, I like singing the word anonymously. Maybe I used Paul’s work, where the bridge – “Well, look at the lonely people” – start up the music.

I think watching his death when his life is so exciting, but telling that life story is like writing an opera and best left to McCartney.

p.s Jennifer Julia Eleanor Marx was cremated at Woking Crematorium, and her ashes have their own history – first taken to the SDF offices, then the British Socialist Party and then the British Communist Party, then moved to the Marx Memorial Library in Clerkenwell Green, where they are displayed on a bookshelf in the Lenin Room. In 1956, when Karl and Jenny’s mausoleum was built at Highgate Cemetery, his remains were buried with them.

pps Edward Aveling lived only four months, and died of kidney disease on August 2, 1898.

The Last Word

I fell in love with a communist cad

A unique combination, it blew me away

Not good, not good

Labor and capital, value and price

Labor and capital, value and price

Let me tell you one last word

Let me tell you one last word

I lied to you, but I did not deceive you

You just heard what you wanted to hear

Get the chemistry, send the girl

My time has come, I am not afraid

Let me tell you one last word

Let me tell you one last word

My final message to you is as I said

During these long sad years

My last words to you are the same

During these long sad years

These are the ashes of Eleanor Marx

Jennifer Julia Eleanor Marx

The one who took his life, on the last day of March

Jennifer Julia Eleanor Marx

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